APA Reference System

APA Reference System

1. Book (one author)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicized. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Berkman, R. I. (1994). Find it fast: How to uncover expert information. New York, NY: Harper Perrenial.

2. Book (two authors)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicized Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Moir, A. & Jessel, D. (1991). Brain sex: The real difference between men and women. London: Mandarin.

3. Book (Three to five authors)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book – italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

O'Keefe, J. H., Bell, D. S. H., & Wyne, K.L. (2009). Diabetes essentials. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

4. Book (six or seven authors)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book – italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Bexby, C., Nigel, E., Smith, K., Rodgers, G. A., Williams, H., & Robinson, J. (2005). Referencing and plagiarism: A complete guide. London: Sage.

5. Book (eight or more authors)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book – italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Cite the last names & initials of the first six authors then follow with a comma and three spaced ellipsis points (. . .), then the last author’s name.

Johnson, L., Lewis, K., Peters, M., Harris, Y., Moreton, G., Morgan, B., … Smith, P. (2005). How far is far? London: McMillan.

6. Book (no author)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication).Title of book - italicised Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

The CCH Macquarie dictionary of business. (1993). North Ryde, NSW: CCH Australia.

7. Book (author identified as anonymous)

Anonymous - only if author is specifically named as “Anonymous”. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Anonymous. (1996). Primary colors : A novel of politics. New York, NY: Random House.

8. Book (authors with same last name)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

Examples:

Lewis, J. P. (2007). Fundamentals of project management. New York, NY: American Management Association.

Lewis, R. (2007). Human genetics: concepts and applications. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

9. Book (multiple works by the same author)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Order chronologically from earliest in the reference list

Willmott, W.F . (2004). Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of Southern Queensland. Brisbane: Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division.

Willmott, W.F. (2006). Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of Central Queensland. Brisbane: Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division.

10. Book (multiple works by the same author, published in the same year)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Order alphabetically by title in the Reference list, giving first title "a" suffix to year and so on.

Dawkins, R. (1996a). Climbing Mount Improbable. London: Viking.

Dawkins, R. (1996b). River out of Eden. London: Phoenix.

11. Book (by an organization or institution)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Queensland Health. (2002). Best practice guidelines for the management of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. Brisbane, Australia: Author.

12. Book (different editions)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicized (Edition number ed.). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

The edition statement is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition.

DeHart, G. B., Sroufe, L.A., & Cooper, R. G. (1995). Child development: Its nature and course (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

13. Book (edited)

Editor(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple editors. (Ed. or Eds.). (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

Examples:

Friedman, S. L., & Wachs, T. D. (Eds.). (1999). Measuring environment across the life span: emerging methods and concepts.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Everson, S. (Ed.). (1991). Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

14. Book (electronic version of a print book)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicized. [Provider of electronic version]. Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicized. [Provider of electronic version]. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Examples:

Add the name of the provider of the electronic version in square brackets.

De Lara, M., & Doyen, L. (2008). Sustainable management of natural resources: Mathematical models and methods. [SpringerLink version]. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp? genre=book&isbn=978-3-540-79073-0

Ardia, D. (2008). Financial risk management with Bayesian estimation of GARCH models: Theory and applications [SpringerLink version]. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-78657-3

 

15. Book (electronic only)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication).Title of book - italicized. Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

Example:

Stevens, K. (n.d.) The dreamer and the beast. Retrieved from http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=332

16. Book (translation)

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicized (Translator name - first initial. last name, Trans.). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Ylinen, J. (2008). Stretching therapy: For sport and manual therapies (J. Nurmenniemi, Trans.). Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone.

17. Book Chapter (edited book-print version)

Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In Editor(s) – initial(s) and family name - of book (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of book – italicized (pp. Page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Baker, F. M., & Lightfoot, O. B. (1993). Psychiatric care of ethnic elders. In A. C. Gaw (Ed.), Culture, ethnicity, and mental illness (pp. 517-552). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

18. Book chapter (edited electronic book without DOI)

Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In Editor(s) – initials and family name - of book (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of book – italicized (pp. Page numbers). Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

Example:

Scott, D. (2005). Colonial governmentality. In J. X. Inda (Ed.), Anthropologies of modernity (pp. 21-49). Retrieved from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/bookhome/117909832

19. Book chapter (edited electronic book with DOI)

Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials, use & for multiple  authors. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In Editor(s) – initials and family name - of book (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of book – italicised (pp. Page numbers). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Example:

Iacono, W. G. (2008). Polygraph testing. In E. Borgida & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), Beyond common sense: Psychological science in the courtroom (pp. 219-235). doi: 10.1002/9780470696422

20. Article (print journal article)

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicizedVolume – italicised( Issue or number), Page number(s).

Example:

Lowrie, T., & Diezmann, C. M. (2009). National numeracy tests: A graphic tells a thousand words. Australian Journal of Education53, 141-158.

21. Article (journal article with DOI – one author)

Author of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicizedVolume – italicized (Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Example:

Osman, M. (2010). Controlling uncertainty: A review of human behavior in complex dynamic environments. Psychological Bulletin136(1), 65-86. doi: 10.1037/a0017815

22. Article (journal article with DOI two authors)

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicizedVolume – italicized (Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Example:

Kerrigan, A. M., & Kingdon, C. (2010). Maternal obesity and pregnancy: A retrospective study. Midwifery26(2), 138-146. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2008.12.005

23. Article (journal article with DOI three to five authors)

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicized, Volume – italicized (Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Example:

Skenderian, J. J., Siegel, J. T., Crano, W. D., Lac, A., & Alvaro, E. E. (2008). Expectancy change and adolescents' intentions to use marijuana. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors22(3), 563-569. doi:10.1037/a0013020

24. Article (journal article with DOI six authors or more)

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicized, Volume – italicized (Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Example:

Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., . . . Griffin, W. A. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-856. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.68.5.843

 

25. Article (Journal article with DOI – available in advance in an online publication (no volume, issue or pages))

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicized, Volume – italicized (Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Example:

Allan, H. (2010). The perils facing nurse education: A call for leadership for learning. Nurse Education Today, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2010.01.002

26. Article (Journal article accessed electronically, without DOI)

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicized, Volume – italicized (Issue or number), Page number(s). Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

Example:

Fallon, A., & Engel, C. (2008). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The Practising Midwife, 11(9), 1-27. Retrieved from http://www.practisingmidwife.co.uk

27. Article (journal article in press)

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (in press). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicized. Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

Example:

Williams, S., & Beattie, H. J. (in press). Problem based learning in the clinical setting – a systematic review. Nurse Education Today.

28. Web page (with author)

Author(s) of page – person or organisation, use & for multiple authors. (Year page created or revised). Title of page. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Do not include retrieval date unless the material may change over time (e.g. Wikis).

Example:

Atherton, J. (2005). Behaviour modification. Retrieved from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/behaviour_mod.htm

29. Web page (no author)

Title of page(Year page created or revised). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Do not include retrieval date unless the material may change over time (e.g. Wikis).

Example:

Behaviour modification. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.educational-psychologist.org.uk/behaviour.html

30. Web page (no date)

Author(s) of page – person or organization, use & for multiple authors. (n.d.). Title of page. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

Example:

Society of Clinical Psychology. (n.d.). About clinical psychology. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/about/division/div12.aspx

31. Web page (group/corporate author)

Author(s) of page – group or organization, use & for multiple authors. (Year page created or revised). Title of page. Retrieved from Web Address.

Example:

Queensland Health. (2009). Sun safety and physical activity. Retrieved from http://access.health.qld.gov.au/hid/SkinHealth/SunSafety/
sunSafetyAndPhysicalActivity_ap.asp.

32. Podcasts

Author. (Year, month day). Title - italicised, [Type of media]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Example:

Al Zaabi, M. (Producer), & Bjarnesen, T. (Presenter). (2006, November 7). Diabetes in the elderly [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/hn/talks/

33. Email or personal communication

Email or personal communication are not included in the reference list. In text, they should be cited as below:

K.P.Miles (personal communication, August 6, 2008)

34. Message posted to a newsgroup, online forum or discussion group

Author - last name, initial(s). (Year, month day). Title of post [Type of format]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

If only screen name is available, use the screen name for author.

Example:

Winther, M. (2009, January 14). The unconscious is spirit [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://groups.google.com/group/ alt.psychology.jung/topics?lnk

35. Web page (image on a web page)

Title of image [Image] (Year). Retrieved from Web Address

Example:

Scarlet fever rash picture [Image] (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/dermatlas/scarletfever.html

36. Blog post

Author - last name, initial(s) or screen name. (Year, month day). Title [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Example:

Reville, L. (2006, September 5). Where to find fundraising ideas [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://nlrp.blogspot.com/

37. Comment on blog post

Author - last name, initial(s) or screen name. (Year, Month Day). Title of port comment [Web log comment]. Retrieved from: http://www.xxxxxx

Example:

Beck, C. (2017, June 5). Re: This is what a librarian looks like [Web log comment]. Retrieved from: https://librarianbyday.net/2017/06/05/this-is-what-a-librarian-looks-like-2/

38. Email discussion list – web archive

Author - last name, initial(s). (Year, month day). Title of message [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Example:

Vuinovich, G. (2001, April 4). Report on malaria outbreak [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://www.hcmatters.org/VirtualListserv_Archives /HCM/Policy/2001/msg016.html

39. YouTube video - real name of person posting known

Author - last name, initial(s) [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from Web Address.

Example:

O’Brien, B. [Brenna O]. (2017, May 5). NVivo 11 training - full video (5/4/17) - updated [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNo-Qxsp-mk

40. YouTube video - screen name only

Screen name - exactly as posted. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from Web Address

Example:

ssiconamed. (2013, July 5). Tutorial NVivo [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7AtFisYXo9k

41. Facebook

Author of post - last name, inital(s) [Full name]. (Year, Month Day). Name of the page or the content or caption of the post - up to  the first 40 words [Content form]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

Example:

University of Queensland Library. (2017, October 4). The winners of the 2017 Queensland Literary Awards will be revealed at tonight’s ceremony. Good luck to all shortlisted writers! [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/pg/uniofqldlibrary/posts/

42. Twitter

Author of post - last name, inital(s) [Full name]. (Year, Month Day). Name of the page or the content or caption of the post– up to the first 40 words [Content form]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

Example:

University of Queensland Library. (2017, October 4). Turtles down by UQ St Lucia Lakes today. Air conditioned library or enjoying the sun and 
the view - tough choice! [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/uqlibrary/status/915782138905034752

43. Dictionary or Encyclopaedia – print version

Author(s) or editor(s) of work – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors or editors. (Ed. or Eds. - if editor used) (Year of publication). Title - italicized (Edition - if other than first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Wolman, B.B. (Ed.). (1989). Dictionary of behavioral science (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

44. Dictionary or Encyclopaedia – electronic

Author(s) - family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of entry. In - Editor(s) - initial. last name (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised (Edition - if other than first). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Author(s) - family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of entry. In - Editor(s) - initial. last name (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised (Edition - if other than first). Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

Example:

Onwuegbuzie, A. J. & Mayoh, J. (2016). Mixed methods. In H. L. Miller Jr (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of theory in psychology. doi: 10.4135/9781483346274.n192

45. Dictionary or Encyclopaedia - no author

Entry title. (Year of publication). In Editors - initial(s). Last Name - use & for multiple editors, Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised (Edition - if other than first ed.). Retrieved from
http: www.xxxxxx

Entry title. (Year of publication). In Editors - initial(s). Last Name - use & for multiple editors, Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised (Edition - if other than first ed.). doi: DOI

Example:

Community. (2009). In J. Scott & G. Marshall (Eds.), A dictionary of sociology (3rd rev. ed.). Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199533008.001.0001/acref-9780199533008-e-337rskey=wDCUCP&result=1&q=community

46. Conferences

1. Published conference paper  

Author(s) of paper – last name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of paper. In Editor(s) - initial(s). last name (Ed(s).) Title of published proceeding – italicised. (pp. page numbers). Place of Publication: Publisher. 

Example:

Scheinin, P. (2009). Using student assessment to improve teaching and educational policy. In M. O'Keefe, E. Webb, & K. Hoad (Eds.), Assessment and student learning: Collecting, interpreting and using data to inform teaching (pp. 12-14). Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research. 

47. Newspaper or magazine article

1. Newspaper article with author

Author(s) of article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication, month day). Title of article. Newspaper title – italicised, p. page number(s).

Precede page numbers with p. or pp.

Example:

Cook, D. (2002, January 28). All in the mind. The Age, p. 8.

2. Newspaper article, no author

Title of article. (Year of publication, month day). Newspaper title – italicised, p. page number(s).

Example:

Meeting the needs of counsellors. (2001, May 5). The Courier Mail, p. 22.

  3. Newspaper article - online   

Author(s) - last name, initial(s), use & for multiple authors. (Year, month date). Article title. Newspaper title - italicised. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Title of article. (Year of publication, month day). Newspaper title – italicised. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Example:

Sinnerton, J. (2017, September 19). Nutritionists warn conflicting eating advice from social media creates dangerously unhealthy diets. The Courier Mail. Retrieved from 
http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/queensland/nutritionists-warn–conflicting-eating-advice-from-social-media-creates-dangerously-unhealthy-diets/newsstory/c84145728a2963d1e91b0f9b8f1e9fc4

4. Newspaper article from fulltext database

Author(s) - last name, initial(s), use & for multiple authors. (Year, month date). Article title. Newspaper title - italicised, p. Page Number. Retrieved from Database Name.

Example:Lampathakis, P. (1997, August 11). Tantrums seen as suicide warning. The West Australian, p. 26. Retrieved from Factiva database.

5. Magazine article - print  

Author(s) - last name, initial(s), (Year, month). Title of article. Magazine title - italicised, volume - italicised(issue), pages.

Example:

Marano, H.E. (2008, March-April). Making of a perfectionist. Psychology Today, 41, 80-86.

 

6. Magazine article - online  

Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, month). Article title. Magazine title - italicised, volume – italicized (issue). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

Example:

Flora, C. (2017, September/October). The hardest word. Psychology Today, 50(5). Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/201709/the-hardest-word?collection=1105674     

48. Report

“The names of groups that serve as authors (eg. corporations, associations, government agencies…) are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. The names of some groups are spelled out in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter. In deciding whether to abbreviate the name of a group author, use the general rule that you need to give enough information in the text citation for the reader to locate the entry in the reference list without difficulty. If the name is long… and the abbreviation is familiar…, you may abbreviate the name in the second and subsequent citations. If the name is short or if the abbreviation would not be readily understandable, write out the same each time it occurs”. (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 176)

Corporate author - organization, association, company, government department

Example:

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

49. Thesis

1. Unpublished thesis

Author - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of thesis - italicised (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of institution, Location.

Example:

Rahman, M. (2013). Using authentic materials in the writing classes: Tertiary level scenario. (Unpublished master's thesis). BRAC University, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

2. Thesis retrieved from website

Author - last name, initial(s). (Year of preparation of thesis). Title of thesis – italicised (Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Institution, Location). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Example:

Axford, J.C. (2007). What constitutes success in Pacific Island community conserved areas? (Doctoral dissertation, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia). Retrieved from http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:158747

3. Thesis retrieved from database 

Author - last name, initials. (Year of preparation of thesis). Title of thesis – italicised (Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis. Retrieved from Database Name. (Accession or order number in database)

Example:

Sheehan, L. R. (2007). Destination management organizations: A stakeholder perspective (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest Digital Dissertations. (AAT NR25719)   

50. Interview

1. Translation of a recorded interview, no recording available

Name of interviewee - last name, initials(s). (Year). Title/Interviewer: name of interviewer [Description of form]. Retrieved from Web address

Example:

Sparkman, C. F. (1973). An oral history with Dr. Colley F. Sparkman/Interviewer: Orley B. Caudill. Mississippi Oral History Program (Vol. 289), University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.

 2. Interview recorded and available in an archive 

Name of interviewee - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title/Interviewer: name of interviewer [Description of form]. Retrieved from Web address

Example:

Barnes, E. (1969, September 4). Interview with Eva Barnes - Part 1/Interviewer: Studs Terkel [Real Media file]. Retrieved from http://www.studsterkel.org/dstreet.php

 3. Interview with participant(s), as part of your own research

Do not include in the reference list

51. Dataset

1. Dataset- online

Investigators. (Year). Title of dataset - italicised [Description of format or type]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Example:

Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book]. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/datasets/

 2. Dataset with DOI 

Investigators. (Year). Title of dataset - italicised [Description of format or type]. doi:xx.xxxxxx

Example:

Wong, K. K., & Langevin, W. E. (2007). Policy expansion of school choice in the American states, 1991-2005 [Dataset]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR20427.v1     

52. Brochure

Author. (Year). Title of brochure. [Brochure]. Place: Use "Author" as publisher.

Example:

University of Queensland, Student Services, Personal Counselling Program. (2000). Eating disorders [Brochure]. Brisbane, Australia: Author.

53. Lecture notes and Slides

1. Lecture note-print

Name of author(s) or the institution responsible, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title and subtitle of publication – italicised, Name of institution, Location of institution.

Example:

List name of city, state and country. Do not include state if listed in university name.

Johnson, A. (2008). Week three: Foucault [Powerpoint slides]. Unpublished manuscript, BESC1001, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

2. Lecture notes and slides-online

Name of author(s) or the institution responsible, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title and subtitle of publication – italicised , [Type of format]. Retrieved from Course code/number, Name of Institution http://www.xxxxxx

Example:

Johnson, A. (2008). Week three: Foucault [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from BESC1001, University of Queensland Blackboard Online, http://www.elearning.uq.edu.au/

54. Video or DVD

1. DVD or video- physical version

Producer, A.A. (Producer), & Director, B.B. (Director). (Year). Title of video or DVD – italicised [Format - Motion picture, DVD, etc] . Place of origin: Studio.

Example:

Smith, S. (Producer). (2009). Excellence in teaching: Lesson planning [DVD]. Plainview, NY: Sunburst Media.

 2. Online video - real name of person posting known

Author - last name, initial(s) [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Example:

O’Brien, B. [Brenna O]. (2017, May 5). NVivo 11 training - full video (5/4/17) - updated [Video file]. Retrieved from 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNo-Qxsp-mk

 3. Online video - screen name only

Screen name - exactly as posted. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Example:

ssiconamed. (2013, July 5).  Tutorial NVivo [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7AtFisYXo9k

55. Television Program

1. Television program

Writer name(s) (Writer). (Year, month day). Title - italicised [Type of medium]. Place of broadcast: Name of broadcaster

Example:

Bryant, B. (Writer). (2001, September 12). The Bryant medical hour [Television broadcast]. Sydney, Australia: Public Broadcasting Service.

 2. Episode from television series

Episode writer's name - last name, initial(s) (Writer), & Director name - last name, initial(s). (Director). (Year). Title of television series episode [Television series episode]. In Executive producer - inital(s), last name (Executive producer), Television series name - itialicised. Place of Production: Producer.

Example:

Rappaport, J. (Writer) & Dubin, C. S. (Director). (1983). Say no more [Television series episode]. In B. Metcalfe (Executive producer), M*A*S*H. Los Angeles, California: 20th Century Fox Television.