Document Type: Original Article
Department of International Relations, University of Shahid Beheshti, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Islamic Studies and Thought, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Department of Public Policy and Iran Studies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iraqi Shiites make up near 60 percent of the population live in the southern half of the country. However, they have been rarely in the circles of power throughout history and often under colonial domination of minorities that reached its peak during the rule of the Ba'ath Party. Thus, the Shiites were considered as an opposition through the history of Iraq, particularly after the World War I and the entry of Britain, although the intensity of the struggle varied according to different conditions. As noted, the Shiites who were in a weak position throughout the Iraq's history were able to gain significant influence on the structure of the Iraqi government and build a Shiite government due to changes in their country after 2003. The Shiites pursue their goals as Islamist parties and groups, and although they differ in many details of their goals, they are united in their general identity, Islam, and establishment of a Muslim community, and seek, in the light of reli-gious doctrines, giving meaning to future policies of their country. This research aims to investigate the Iraqi Shiites’ historical status from the era of Imam Ali (AS) until the fall of Saddam.