The long-term and short-term factors affecting the Arab Revolutions

Document Type : Original Article


With the emergence of the phenomenon of "Arab revolutions", the Middle East has entered a new era. The investigation of the goals of the Arab revolutions requires their pathology. The developments of the Arab world, although occurred with the self-immolation of a young Tunisian and its widespread reflection in the global media, but these events origins returns to the previous years. These countries have a wide range of problems. It seems that the intellectual movements which have been occurred in the Middle East and the Muslim world in the last 100 years, have brought new demands and implications into the peoples live of this part of the world that have been ignored by the ruling systems and eventually has led to the emergence of the "Arab Spring." These factors include economic crises such as unemployment, demographic and demographic changes in Arab countries, bribery being of governments and dependence on windfall wealth or foreign helps, widespread corruption among government officials and the gap between the poor and rich. On the one hand, however, another factor, along with the above issues, has deepened the legitimacy crisis and, on the other hand, has accelerated the process of changes and that is the globalization and expansion of Cyber space. In fact, under the influence of the globalization of the access of Arab youth to the Internet, and in particular Social networks, such as Facebook and Twitter have been facilitated, and while creating cyber base challenged the legitimacy of a system, and, on the other hand, They have brought the crisis of legitimacy, and in addition that planned their campaign communities and organizing. In this article, we will try to address the external factors in the process of the Arabic countries democratization.




Abbaszade, M,  (2014), " the role internet and social networks in the middle east and north of Africa Revolutions, theory and action" periodical of political studies of Ilam" 69-88, p:11
Ajami, Foud, (2012), "the Arab spring at one" Foreign Affairs, Vol 91, issue two. March/April
Amin, Samir, (2011) "An Arab spring", monthly review. OctoberAnderson, L., (2011), "Demystifying the Arab Spring" Foreign Affair,              
vol, 90 issues 3.May/June
Anooshe, E., (2013), “the role of social networks in recent changes in The Middle East” by emphasizing on Facebook" political- international research, number 16, p: 169-191
Ardestani, A., Tabrizian H. (2015), "the effect of human development in democratic passage in Egypt" politics periodical, 45, number 1, p: 249-265.
Ashouri, D., (2003), "Political periodical" Tehran, Moevaris publication
Azimi, A. Shojaeezand, A.R.  Movassaghi S.A., (2014), "Reviewing demarcation and separating it from political changes of Arabia world" political researches of Islamic World, No. 9, p: 11-34.
BagheriDolatabadi, A. , Poorjafar E. (2014), " analysis of Arabia Spring and the reason for its failure using disturbance theory "political studies of Islamic world periodical, number 12, p:11-36.
Bakhshian, A., (2012), "Eyes and Ears of the Aran Spring" National interest, issue 117, pp. 85-90.January/ February
Bazargan, M., (1984), Iran Revolution in two movements, Tehran
BMI, (2012), " Arab spring one year on: Assessing the transition" Middle East Monitor: the Gulf, VOl.12, issue 4, pp. 2-3. April
Enayat, H., (1997), "Research on political thinking of Arab", 5th edition, Tehran, Amir Kabir
Esposito, John L, (2003), "Iran revolution and its world reflection" Tehran, Baz publications
Faraji, Sh. Massidnia, H. Hersij H., (2015), " the role of the modern middle class in revolution of Egypt, 2011", world politics periodical, period 4, number, 2, 101- 148.
Hakan, Y. (2000), "Secularism and Islamic Democracy in Turkish" Azizi, A. Tehran, Ney publication
Hamshahri Newspaper, 19th, N. 5384
Kamrava, M., (2009), the modern Middle East "Ghalibaf, m. Mousapour M. Tehran, Ghomes Publication
Milani, M., (2009), "Formation of Islamic revolution from Pahlavi to Islamic republic" Atarzade, M. Tehran, Game-no
Moorise D., (1997), "Principles of politics" translated by Ghazi Shariyatpanahi, Tehran, Dadgostar publication
SameeIsfahani, A.R. , Rajaee M.S. (2015) " analyzing reproduction procedures of Saudi kings in the shadow of Arabia Spring" universal politics periodical, 149-181, p:2 N. 4.
Seifzadeh, H., (2005), "Modernization and new theories of political science, Tehran, Mizan publication