Second-wave feminism and the attitude of Islam to it

Document Type : Original Article


Nowadays, we are witnessing various crises and challenges in different areas. The women's crisis is one of the most significant of these crises, and feminism is a solution for solving this crisis, according to the Westerns.The researchers have emphasized the sexual equality perspective(gender equality) to define feminism. The main purpose of the feministsforeliminating all gender differences between social roles of men and women has distinguished this movement from others. The movement has attempted to consider women and their concerns as the ideological base. However, this movement faced political, economic and other challenges during the achievement of this goal to the extent that the feminist scholars neglected women.
Feminism is an organized movement to achieve women's rights andan ideologyto transform society, which was formed in the late nineteenth century in opposition to some social inequalities. The second-wave feminism began in the 1960s,and its advocates believed in reconstruction and revolution, and also called for the full equality of men and women in all social, psychological and cultural spheres. About the increasing growth of such schools, the rich scientific knowledge of divine schools, such as Islam,should not be ignored. Islam also has evidence to show the ineffectiveness of these movements. The present article aims to consider the two theories of Islam and second-wave feminism from the standpoint of philosophical foundations and origins.


1. Holy Quran.
2. Imam Khomeini, (1990), Sahifeh Noor, vol. 15, Soroush publication, Tehran.
3. Imam Khomeini (2008), Description of Forty Hadith, Institute for the Formulation and Publication of Imam Khomeini's Works (PBUH).
4. Al-maghazi, (1414 AD), The school of Islamic Signs, Vol. 1.
5. Anwari, Hassan (2003), SokhanEncyclopedia, MaharatPublication.
6. Statements by the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khameneiin the meeting of the participants in the World Summit on Women and IslamicAwakening, 2012.
7. Statements in a meeting of a group of elite women.
8. Hosseini, SeyedEbrahim (2000), Feminism Against Women, Review Book, Vol. 17. Vosuq, Qom
9. ChreaghiKoutyani, Ismail(2007).Feminism and its viewpoint to the family (Part I), Fars News Agency, Dec. 18
10. ZibaeeNejad, Mohammad Reza, Sobhani, Mohammad Taghi(2009), An Introduction to the Personality of Women in Islam, Women's Studies and Research Center of
Qom Province.
11. ZibaeeNejad, Mohammad Reza, Sobhani, Mohammad Taghi (2003), An Introduction to the Personality of Women in Islam: A Comparative Study of the Viewpoint of Islam and the West, Women's Studies and Research Center.
12. Sheikh HorAmeli, (2008), Wasaelal-Shia Fi TahsilMasael al-Sharia, Vol. 15, Al-albeit publishing, Qom.
13. Zahrabi Kalantari, (2005), Islam and Feminism, BashgahAndisheh.
14. Martin,Segalan (1996), Historical Sociology of the Family, translated by Hamid Eliasi, Center Publishing. Tehran
15. The Woman's Message Magazine (2008), The Evolution of Feminism in the Four Recent Centuries, No. 193.
16. Meshil, André (1998), Women's Social Movement, ZanjianZadeh, Nika.
17. Meshirzadeh,Homeira (2002), From Movement to Social Theory: The History of Two Centuries of Feminism, Tehran, ShirazehPublishing and Research.
18. Moshirzadeh, Homeira (2004), Structuralism as the International Relations Meta-Theory. Journal of Faculty of Law and Political Science of Tehran University.
19. Meshirzadeh, Homeira (1999), From Movement to Social Theory: The History of Two Centuries of Feminism, Shirazeh, Tehran.
20. Motahhari,Mortazai (1999), Collection of Articles, Tehran, Sadra.
21. Maanithi, Hayedeh, Populist Feminism and Islamic Feminism, Kankash, US Printing, Autumn 1997.
22. Taha Cultural Institute (1998), A Look at Feminism, Deputy of Professors and Courses of Islamic Studies, Qom.
23. Lipst, Siver, Martin et al. (2004), the Encyclopedia of Democracy, Kamran Fani, NoroullahMadiet al., the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ Center for Press and Publishing.
24. NouriTabarsi, MirzaHossein, Mustardak al-Wussehl and Mustanbatal-Masaleh, Vol. 2, Al-Alibit Publishing, Beirut.
25. Oxford; Advanced learner Dictionary of Current English, A. S. Hornby, Oxford University, Prees, 1998, p. 528
26. Fox-Genovese1965. Elizabeth, Feminism is not the story of my life, Double day Printed