Recent Developments in Geopolitics of Energy and their Effects on the Political and Economic Future of the Middle East Countries

Document Type: Original Article


Energy has always been of particular importance to humanity. Oil and gas have been some of the energies that greatly influenced the national security of countries, which produce and consume energy. With the transformation of geostrategic discourse into geo-economic discourse in recent decades and the key role of economics in global relations, oil as the basis of modern industry has enjoyed a higher status compared with other factors of power. While assuming particular importance for energy and its security for the countries producing and consuming energy in the coming decades, the present article endeavors to investigate this fundamental problem regarding the direction of changes in energy, and oil and gas markets in the future and their effects on the status of the Middle East. For this purpose, qualitative and library method has been used. The findings suggest that, according to the estimations, we will witness a gradual development in the geopolitics of global energy in the next decade, North America will become one of the oil and gas producers and exporters and that this development makes major geopolitical impacts on the future of the Middle East as the center of the world’s energy. The authors suggest that the Middle East countries reduce their revenue sources from oil and gas to other sources such as tourism, non-oil exports and charging tax from citizens.



Alem, Abdulrahman. (1994). the Foundations of Politics. Tehran: Ney Publications.

Asgarkhani, Abu Muhammad.(2004). International Regimes. Tehran: The Institute for Studies of Contemporary Abrar of Tehran Press.

Beigi, Mahdi. (2009).The Soft Power of the Islamic Republic of Iran (case study: Lebanon). Tehran: University of Imam Sadiq (PBUH) and the University of Imam Hussein (AS).

BP Statistical Review of World Energy.(2011June). Retrieved October 1, 2016 from

‎BP Statistical Review of World Energy.(2013June).Retrieved October 1, 2016 from

Derakhshan, Masoud. (2012). Energy Security and Future Developments in Oil and Gas Markets.Journal of Rahbord, 21(64), 188-159.

Diamond, Larry. (2008). The Spirit of democracy: The struggle to build free society Throughout the World. N.Y: Macmillan 

EIA. (2010). International Energy Outlook, Retrieved October 1, 2016

Energy Productions and Imports.(2013). U.S Energy Information Administration. Retrieved October 1, 2016


Ezzati, Ezatollah and Veisi, Hadi. (2006). A Geopolitical and Geo-economic Analysis of the Iran-India Gas Pipeline.Journal of Geopolitics.Second edition, 45-27.

Global Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels.(2013). U.S Energy Information Administration, Retrieved October 1, 2016 from

Kemp, Jeffrey & Harvey, Robert.(2004).the Strategic Geography of the Middle East.Vol.1, translated by Seyed Mahdi HosseiniMatin, Institute for Strategic Studies press.

Mahdian, Hossein and Fakhri, Sirus. (2012). Iran's Energy Geopolitics and Energy Security of the West.Human Geography Studies, 44(4), 45-64.

Maugeri, Leonardo. (2012). Oil: The Next Revolution. Harvard Kennedy School.

Mir Heydar, Dorreh. (1998). Functional Capabilities and Limitations of Geopolitics. Magazine of Political and Economic Information, March/April 1998, No.127-128, 90-95

Nye, Joseph.(2008).Soft Power. Translated by Seyed Mohsen Rohani and Mahdi
zolfaghari. Tehran: University of Imam Sadiq (PBUH) and The Institute for Basij Studies and Research.

OPEC Share of World Crude Oil Reserves.(2011).Retrieved October 1, 2016 from

Ross, Michael. L. (2001).Does Oil Hinder democracy. World Politics,53(3), 325-61,Retrieved October 1, 2016 from

Shirkhani, Mohammad Ali &Pirouz, Bijan. (2009). Middle East Energy Security and Economic Development in Asia and the Pacific .Journal of Politics, 39(4), 107-89.

The oil and gas producing countries of North Africa and the Middle East.(2012).Retrieved October 1, 2016 from

Thompson, Mark. (2012). U.S. to become biggest oil producer and energy independent. CNN Money, 12 November 2012, retrieved October 1, 2016 from

Yazdani, Enayatollah&Toyserkani, Mojtaba.(2011).an Analysis of the Geopolitical Competition of Powers in “Strategic Energy Ellipse ".Journal of Geographical Studies, 26(4),149-186.