The Authoritative Governance in the Middle East And the Process of “Transition to Democracy”

Document Type: Original Article

Abstract

During
past two decades, “Pass through a democratic status” gave attention by most
Middle East analysts. In fact, since the early 1980s, The Middle East and The
North of Africa affected by third wave of democratization effects and both
state and society felt its impacts. Since, civil society has been promoting and
strengthening, from one hand, and sovereign governments gradually withdrawal
has begun, from the other. In a number of countries, this civil society
strength with weakness and withdrawal of sovereign governments was so that made
some analysts optimists to the coming Middle East. However, during the time, it
was revealed that the democracy in the states’ viewpoints was different from
the Middle Eastern citizens’ democratic calls. Put it differently, the
sovereign political elites sought for a democracy in which there was no changes
in power relationships, and participation declined to a quantitative presence
in elections - with predictable results - as well. This led the writers and
analysts to adopt more real and precise positions to obstacles of democratic
transition. To better understanding, one should aware that, like any other
social changes, this democratic transient, in each nation and country, requires
proper subjective and /or objective conditions to achieve. Proper subjective
grounds mean penetration of democratic thoughts and notions among peoples.
Besides, Proper socio-economic conditions are very important and necessary;
the   increased and promoted middle-class
and its independence of state is the most important indications of these
objective situations. Of course, these two positions is hard to reach, and it
doesn’t mean that this democratic transition will be occurred so fast and
simple, since, as evidently, the historical  
and cultural background might appear a rigid and hard obstacle - or on
the contrary - shortens this process.

Keywords


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