The discourse theory of democracy and public sphere in Habermas's ideas

Document Type : Original Article


Research and scientific explanation about discourse democracy theory of Jurgen
Habermas  and studying and evaluating reflection and generalization of his philosophical and epistemological principles are objectives which the researcher follows in this research From this view, there is studied representation of concepts and categories such as cognitive interests, communication action, discoursing ethics, an ideal situation of the speech, and public sphere  as the most prominent components and principles of his democracy. These concepts were chosen and studied, because of their importance and situation of this topic in order to represent the logical relations between epistemology principles of Habermas and its resulted criteria and teaching with his democracy model. Therefore, it is tried that by searching thoughts and representing Habermas theoretical collection, there is clarified and identified democracy principles and criteria and its distinctive and theoretical components, besides analyzing discoursive Democracy model of Habermas and its capabilities in analytical–descriptive perspective and library studying. The researcher believes that the considered discourse democracy of Habermas has the deep philosophical roots, and it is considered as a part of knowledge foundation and a methodology focused on emancipation. He processes discursive Democracy  in a wide public sphere, by relying  to Ethics of Discourse, considering higher reasoning and by critical reading from modern rationality in the frame of communicative rationality concept, as which its objective and nature is a emancipation idea. Findings of this research show these political opinions and thoughts of Habermas have been resulted and affected from principles of his philosophical frame. Therefore, epistemological strong tracks of Habermas have been reflective in his appropriate democracy.


Asen, Robert (1999),"Toward a Normative Conception of Difference in Public Deliberation", Argumentation and Advocacy 25(winter):115–129.
Benhabib, Seyla (1992), Models of Public Space, Habermas and the Public Sphere, Cambridge Mass: MIT press.
Elster, Jon (1998), Deliberative Democracy, Cambridge] u.a. [: Cambridge University. Press.
Fraser, Nancy (1990) Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy, Social Text, and Duke University Press.
Fleming, Marie Emancipation and Illusion: Rationality and Gender in Habermas's Theory of Modernity, Pennsylvania State University Press.
Fishkin, James S.(2009),When the People Speak: Deliberative Democracy and Public Consultation, New York: Oxford University Press.
Fooladvand, Ezatollah (2008), philosophy and society and policy, Tehran, Samt Pub.
Gidenz,Anthony(2007),policy,sociology,social theory,Tehran,translated by ManouchehriSboori,fourth print
Habermas,Jurgen(1970),On Systematically Distorted Communication ", " Towards On Theory of Communication",Inquiry,no.13,pp.205-18.critical sociology, editor: Paul Conerton, translated by Kamal Pooladi, Tehran, Markaz pub., fourth print.
Habermas, Jurgen (1973), Communication and the Evolution of Society, trans.T.MacCarthy, Boston, Beacon Press.
Habermas, Jurgen(1974),The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article, originally appearing in Lexicon Staat und Politik, new edition, Frankfort am Main,1964,pp.220-226.
Habermas, Jurgen (1985),”Reason and the
Rationalization of Society", in the Theory of Communicative Action, Vol.1, Translator by Thomas, Beacon Press.
Habermas, Jurgen (1994) A, "Three Normative Models of Democracy", in Constellation, Vol. I, No: 1, pp.8-20.
Habermas, Jurgen (1994) B, knowledge and Human Interests, Tr. J.Shapiro, Cambridge: polity press.
Habermas,Jurgen(1995),The Theory of Communicative Action,Vol.1: Reason and The Rationonalization of Society, Tr.T. ,Mc McCarthy , Cambridge: polity press.
Habermas, Jurgen (1996), Between Facts and Norms: Contribution to a Discourse Theory of Law Democracy, tr.WilliamRehg, Cambridge, MIT Press.
Habermas, Jurgen (2008),"legitimacy issues in the current capitalism", critical sociology, editor: Paul Conerton translated by Kamal Pooladi, Tehran, Markaz pub., fourth print.pp.425-454.
Hauser, Gerard (1998)."Vernacular Dialogue and the Rhetoricality of Public Opinion".Communication Monographs .pp. 83–107.
Hoolab,Robert(1996),JurgenHabermas, translated by HosseinBashirieh, Tehran, Ney Pub., first print.
Held, David (1995), Introduction to Critical Theory: Horkheimer to Habermas, Cambridge: Polity Press.
McCarthy,T.A(1973),"Theory of Communication Competence",Philosophy of the Social Siences,Vol.3,pp.56-135
Nowzari, Hossein Ali (2002), Reconsidering Habermas: review opinions and thoughts of JurgenHabermas, Tehran, Cheshmeh pub., first print.
Outwait, William (1995), Habermas: An critical introduction, Standford University.
Pusey, Michael(2005),JurgenHabermas, translated by Ahmad Tadian,Tehran, Hermes Pub., second print.
Pusey, Michael (1987), JurgenHabermas, London, Tavitock.
Pooladi, Kamal (2007), history of political thought in 20th century, collected articles, Mah pub., and first print.
Pilot, Herald (2008), “philosophy of Habermas history”, critical sociology, editor: Paul Conerton, translated by Hassan Chavoushian, Akhtaran pub., second print
Ratzinger, Jpseph and JurgenHabermas (2007), the Dialectics of Secularization: On Reason and Religion, Ignatius Press.
Lessnaf,, political philosophers in 20th century, translated by KhashayarDayhimi,Koochak pub., first print.
Legitimizing Power?”,Political Philosophy, University of Ottawa,pp.1-15.From:" wsp/ Mainpoli.htm"
Qaderi, Hatam (2006), political thoughts in 20th century, Tehran, Samt Pub.
Shabany,Payrow.Abdollah(2004),“Habermas’ Between Facts and Norms:
Wikipedia(2008),From: (
Wheate, Steven (2001), wisdom, justice and modernism: current writings of Habermas, translated by Mohammad Hariri Akbari, Tehran, Qatreh pub., first print.
White,Stephen,K.(1989),The Recent Work of JurgenHabermas:Reason,Justice and Modernity,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
Wood, A.W (1991),"Habermas's Defense of Rationalism", New German critique,No35
Young, I.M. (1995),"Communication and theother: Beyond Deliberative Democracy", in M.Wilson and A.Yeatman(Ed), Justice and Identity, willington: Bridget Williams Books.